Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow 6846 was one of the most highly decorated Indigenous soldiers of the Great War. Second Battles of Ypres, the enemy introduced a new deadly weapon, poison gas. After suffering such heavy casualties, it would be normal to pull the 1st Battalion out of the line into Reserve. [4], In April 1915, Pegahmagabow fought in the Second Battle of Ypres, where the Germans used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front, and it was during this battle that he began to establish a reputation as a sniper and scout. [1], On August 30, 1918, during the Battle of the Scarpe, Pegahmagabow was involved in fighting off a German attack at Orix Trench near Upton Wood. [1][10], The war ended in November 1918 and in 1919 Pegahmagabow was invalided back to Canada. Francis Pegahmagabow pictured in Ottawa in 1945. [6], Following the outbreak of World War I, Pegahmagabow volunteered for service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force in August 1914,[7] despite Canadian government discrimination that initially excluded minorities. He stands 5’10” tall, 150 pounds, with dark complexion, dark brown eyes, and black hair. On 14 September 1916, Lance-Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow reverts to ranks at his own request in order join the battle at Courcelette. His complaints concern the same subjects, but the details of the events are contradictory. [20] Canadian novelist Joseph Boyden's 2005 novel Three Day Road was inspired in part by Pegahmagabow. Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow returns to the Western Front for his third tour of duty. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. For instance, the event at the well now has the Medical Officer, and others, accusing Francis of being the spy. Francis is, as the doctors describe, mentally exhausted. In April 1919, Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow invalids to Canada. Corporals and master corporals: bright and articulate. Finally, admitted Military Convalescent Hospital, Woodcote Park, Epsom, 7 February 1918. When the battalion's reinforcements became lost, Pegahmagabow was instrumental in guiding them and ensuring that they reached their allocated spot in the line. Francis Pegahmagabow was a marksman, who fought for the allied forces, as a sniper, against the Germans in the World War I. [4], In January 1912 Pegahmagabow received financial aid for room and board to complete his education with the help of the Parry Sound Crown attorney Walter Lockwood Haight. His first overseas deployment was with the ‘1st Canadian Infantry Battalion,’ which was the first Canadian contingent sent to fight in Europe. However, his son Duncan remembers saying that his father was responsible for capturing 300 enemy soldiers. Whether fighting in the trenches of the First World War or fighting in the political arena for full rights for his people, First Nations soldier Sergeant Francis Pegahmagabow is a true Canadian hero. His company was almost out of ammunition and in danger of being surrounded. His many talents are just beginning to surface. Admitted St. Andrew’s Military Hospital, Toronto, 26 April 1919. Jacob was from the Six Nations Reserve. His second bar to the Military Medal came at the battle of The Scarpe, in 1918. Mostly, he sees his father as a peaceful man. Francis Pegahmagabow was born on March 9, 1891,[3][a] on what is now the Shawanaga First Nation reserve in Nobel, Ontario. He was also an Ojibwa warrior. Pegahmagabow died on the Shawanaga First Nation reserve in 1952. Battle vs. Billy Sing (by Deathblade 100) Indigenous soldiers (particularly Treaty Indians like Francis) are now encouraged to enlist. He was always saying how we have to live in harmony with all living things in this world. Other sources have given Pegahmagabow's birth year as 1888 or 1891. After joining the Canadian force he was based at CFB Valcartier. Francis’ mother, Mary Contin, had also become ill from the same sickness. While taking part the attack near Upton Wood, North of Hendecourt-lez-Cagnicourt, Private Jacob Isaac, 1st Battalion is killed. Pegahmagabow in 1945 while attending a conference in Ottawa where the National Indian Government was formed. GSW Left leg, slight. [9], On November 6/7, 1917, Pegahmagabow earned a Bar to his Military Medal for his actions in the Second Battle of Passchendaele. Secondly, admitted to No.14 Canadian Field Ambulance, 17 September 1918. Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow may have been Canada’s Greatest Soldier in the Great War. Despite the obstacles in his path, Francis is determined to volunteer for the army. Following the outbreak of World War I, Pegahmagabow volunteered for service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force in August 1914, despite Canadian government discrimination that initially excluded minorities. Firstly, admitted to No. Then, he was introduced to traditional medicine by his foster mother. An Ojibwa he grew up at the Parry Island (Wasauksing) Band, near Parry Sound, Ontario. However, many men are claimed by heavy enemy machine-gun fire. Major Burke, Director of Medical Services approves the following day at Liverpool, as Francis embarks for Canada. We’ve built it to be the best. He enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary Force at … Then, in January 1912, Francis receives the financial aid he sought and begins attending school. [5], In 2019, the history-themed power metal band 'Sabaton' released a song dedicated to Pegahmagabow, titled ''A Ghost in the Trenches. Francis is examined again a week later. Just prior to the Second Battle of Passchendaele, Private Francis Pegahmagabow is appointed Corporal, on 1 November 1917. Shawanaga elder Solomon Pawis claimed Francis was not very healthy during his early childhood. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was a Canadian First Nations soldier, politician and activist. But, after her husband’s death, Mary returned to her home of Henvey Inlet First Nation, Georgian Bay. At the age of 12, Francis starts working at the local lumber camps and fishing stations. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & Two bars (March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I.Three times awarded the Military Medal and seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. 5465 of 3 October 1918 reads: During the operations of August 30, 1918, at Orix Trench, near Upton Wood, when his company were almost out of ammunition and in danger of being surrounded, this NCO went over the top under heavy MG [machine gun] and rifle fire and brought back sufficient ammunition to enable the post to carry on and assist in repulsing heavy enemy counter-attacks. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (March 8, 1889 – August 5, 1952) was the most effective sniper of World War I. He is struck in the leg by fragments of an artillery shell, and invalided to England. We have created a browser extension. Before the motion could go through, Pegahmagabow resigned. Francis Pegahmagabow - Military Career. They directed that all correspondence, as of the spring of 1933, go through the Indian agent. He corresponded with and met other noted aboriginal figures including Fred Loft, Jules Sioui, Andrew Paull and John Tootoosis. Canadian snipers are the best in the world. According to the CWM: "Following the war, Pegahmagabow became an advocate for First Nations' rights and served as Chief of his Parry Island Band, Wasauksing First Nation, from 1921 to 1925." 29608, 3 June 1916 reads: For continuous service as a messenger from February 14th 1915 to February 1916. Afterward, Francis joins the Algonquin Regiment in the non-permanent active militia. He also admits to having had some trouble with other men in the hospital while getting dressed in the morning. Using his fame and reputation, Pegamagabow became a prominent First Nations rights activist up until his death in 1952 at the age of 61. [6] He was raised by elder Noah Nebimanyquod and grew up in Shawanaga, where he learned traditional skills such as hunting, fishing, and traditional medicine. Nickname: "Peggy" Place of birth: Parry Sound, Ontario Place of death: Parry Sound, Ontario Allegiance: Canada Service/branch: Canadian Expeditionary Force Years of service: 1914-1919 Rank: Corporal Battles/wars: World War I Second Battle of Ypres Battle of the Somme Second Battle of Passchendaele Battle of the Scarpe Only 37 other Canadian men received the honour of two bars. He participated in the Battle of the Somme and was wounded in the leg. He recovered in time to return to the 1st Battalion as they moved to Belgium. [16], During World War II Pegahmagabow worked as a guard at a munitions plant near Nobel, Ontario, and was a Sergeant-major in the local militia. My mother [Eva] told me he used to go behind enemy lines, rub shoulders with the enemy forces and never get caught. He was the most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper … [4] He had left school at the age of 12 and worked at lumber camps and fishing camps; he eventually became a marine firefighter. Francis Pegahmagabow was a marksman, who fought for the allied forces, as a sniper, against the Germans in the World War I. on 15 April 1919. Francis Pegahmagabow has rarely spoken of his military exploits. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1889 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. In all his work he has consistently shown a disregard for danger and his faithfulness to duty is highly commendable. An Ojibwa from the Perry Island Band in Ontario. Portrait of Francis Pegahmagabow held at the Canadian War Museum, as well as his traditional head dress. In the summer of 1912, Francis works as a marine fireman for the Department of Marine and Fisheries. On 15 September 1918, the 1st Battalion entrain for Acq, but Francis is left behind. [17] In 1943, he became the Supreme Chief of the Native Independent Government, an early First Nations organization. However, the Allies suffer 16,000 casualties at Passchendaele, and Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow earns his first bar to the Military Medal. He was awarded the Military Medal plus two bars for acts of bravery in Belgium and France. Discharged from service 13 May 1919. [5] The Eagle was his spirit animal. By 1916, however, as casualties rise overseas, the CEF becomes increasingly desperate for volunteers. Shortly before arrival, Francis was promoted to corporal, and used his rank to take charge of the situation, relaying messages to different units and guiding lost reinforcements to their designated position on the line [2.] Three times awarded the Military Medal and seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. Canadian First Nations soldier, politician and activist, Francis Pegahmagabow shortly after World War I. During his first year of service, Lance-Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow becomes one of the first Canadians to be earn the Military Medal. Jacob had been wounded at the Battle of Hill 70, and had only recently returned to his unit. Using the much-maligned Ross rifle,[11] he was credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. Instead, the 1st Battalion is in action again on 2 September 1918 at BUISSY SWITCH. He carried messages with great bravery and success during the whole of the actions at Ypres, Festubert and Givenchy. Two days later, the 1st Battalion marches back to the relative safety of WAILLY WOOD CAMP at Chérisy. [4] He was posted to the 23rd Canadian Regiment (Northern Pioneers). Then, admitted No.12 Stationary Hospital, St. Pol, 24 September 1918. To Canadian Convalescent Hospital, Bear Wood, Wokingham Berks, 18 October 1916. Diagnosis: Mental change, later altered to Exhaustion Psychosis. Sniping was the specialty of the man his fellow soldiers called Peggy. Then, admitted General Military Hospital, Colchester, 14 January 1918. In early October 1914 he was deployed overseas with the 1st Ca… Earned his first bar to the Military Medal at the Battle of Passchendaele. Admitted Lord Derby Hospital, Warrington, 11 November 1918. Secondly, he indicates his occupation as Fireman and adds None under next-of-kin. Rob Furlong. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & Two Bars, (March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I.Three times awarded the Military Medal and seriously wounded, he was an expert marksman and scout, credited with killing 378 Germans and capturing 300 more. [4] His battalion took part in the Battle of the Somme in 1916, during which he was wounded in the left leg. 15 relations. During the opening stages of the Battle of Amiens, the 1st Battalion were in reserve for the attacking troops. On 14 September 1916, Lance-Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow reverts to ranks at his own request in order join the battle at Courcelette. Francis Pegahmagabow was born on what is now the Shawanaga First Nation reserve, on the shores of Parry Sound. From 11 November 1918 to 10 January 1918, Francis is held as a mental suspect on account of certain suspicions and actions toward his superior in rank. Francis Pegahmagabow, shown here in an undated portrait, volunteered to join the military as soon as Britain declared war on Germany in 1914. Francis also complains his eyes are failing him. I wore it in the trenches. 64 relations. The Best Sniper Of World War 1 - Francis Pegahmagabow I WHO DID WHAT IN WW1? Either the battle, and/or the burial of many of his friends, including Jacob, pushes Corporal Francis Pegahmagabow to the breaking-point. Prvate Francis Pegahmagabow is wounded on 19 September 1916, during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette. Within weeks of volunteering, he becomes one of the original members of the 1st Battalion. [5] When Francis was three years old, his father died and his mother subsequently left him to return to her home in the Henvey Inlet First Nation. He soon grew up to become a physically, and emotionally strong young man. Then, they hold it for five days, until reinforcements arrive. [2] Daly and other agents who came in contact with Pegahmagabow were incredibly frustrated by his attempts, in his words, to free his people from "white slavery". His father was Michael Pegahmagabow of the Parry Island First Nation and his mother Mary Contin of the Henvey Inlet First Nation, located further up the Georgian Bay's north shore. At first, the Canadian government discourages Indigenous, and other ethnic minorities from military service. Francis sails to England in October 1914 aboard the SS LAURENTIC. Unwin MC to the NCOs, on 10 September 1918, Francis’ unusual behavior causes much concern. Before and after the attack he kept in touch with the flanks. Still suffering from PTSD, Lt.Col. [23] While researching his 2005 novel Three Day Road, Boyden was asked about why he thought that Pegahmagabow had not received a higher award like the Distinguished Conduct Medal or the Victoria Cross. Ontario Hubs: Remembrance Day Report and Health Care in Northern Ontario, Top 10 Most Dangerous Snipers In The World (Hindi). Then, admitted Queen Mary’s Hospital, Stratford, Colchester, slightly improved, 17 January 1918. The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. Sergeant Thomas George Prince MM. 30573, 13 March 1918 reads: At Passchendaele Nov. 6th/7th, 1917, this NCO [non-commissioned officer] did excellent work. The Ojibwe soldier from Wasauksing First Nation near Parry Sound, Ont. He would go on to fight on the Western Front during all four years of the Great War, attaining the rank of Corporal on November 1st, 1917. Later in the day, forty-two, including Francis’s friend, Private Jacob Isaac, are immediately buried in a new battlefield cemetery. [4], Upon his return to Canada he continued to serve in the Militia as a member of the Northern Pioneers (known today as the Algonquin Regiment) as a non-permanent active member. If true, this would certainly eclipse the feat of Corporal Alvin C. York (132 prisoners). Check out The Great War ‘s channel for a more in … Francis Pegahmagabow passed away on Aug. 5, 1952, but was credited with 378 kills and aiding in the capture of approximately 300 enemy combatants — making him the deadliest sniper of the Great War. Francis is one of the first of more than 4000 Indigenous soldiers to volunteer for overseas service in the Great War. 2 Canadian Casualty Depot, Bramshott Camp, 18 March 1918. He was taught to hunt and fish. He also guided the relief to its proper place after it had become mixed up. However, Francis does complain of frequent headaches, and even more troubling, is his memory. Then, following in the steps of his father and grandfather, becomes chief of the Parry Island Band. The band council refuses to help him pay for room and board. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! Admitted No. Discharged 9 November 1916. [21], A life-sized bronze statue of Pegahmagabow was erected in his honour on National Aboriginal Day, June 21, 2016, in Parry Sound, near Georgian Bay. His cough causes him pain in his head. He also states that he saw a Canadian Medical Officer near a well, and suspected him of being a German spy, as he had no instrument for testing the water out of the well. A backwoods upbringing probably has a lot to do with Canada’s history of sniping excellence, fellow military historian Mark Zuehlke posits. Duncan also remembers that Pegahmagabow felt very strongly about his country. Firstly, Francis is one of the first to sign on with the 23rd Regiment (Northern Pioneers) overseas contingent in August 1914. 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