[158] Near Ōarai, people captured images of a huge whirlpool that had been generated by the tsunami. [69], This megathrust earthquake was a recurrence of the mechanism of the earlier 869 Sanriku earthquake, which has been estimated as having a magnitude of at least 8.4 Mw, which also created a large tsunami that inundated the Sendai plain. [344], There were no derailments of Shinkansen bullet train services in and out of Tokyo, but their services were also suspended. The Pacific Plate slid westward near the epicenter by 79 feet (24 m). This motivated government researchers to look into other ways the earthquake may have had large scale effects on the planet. [349] Service between Tokyo and Shin-Aomori was restored by May, but at lower speeds due to ongoing restoration work; the pre-earthquake timetable was not reinstated until late September.[350]. Tsunami debris has continued to wash up on North American beaches years later. Studies are ongoing today. Furthermore, shortly after the earthquake, some wave meters reported a fluctuation of "20 centimetres (7.9 in)", and this value was broadcast throughout the mass media and the warning system, which caused some residents to underestimate the danger of their situation and even delayed or suspended their evacuation. East of Japan, the Pacific plate dives beneath the overriding Eurasian plate. Services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen partially resumed only in Kantō area on 15 March, with one round-trip service per hour between Tokyo and Nasu-Shiobara,[347] and Tōhoku area service partially resumed on 22 March between Morioka and Shin-Aomori. [161], On 13 March 2011, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) published details of tsunami observations recorded around the coastline of Japan following the earthquake. [260][261][262] Reportedly, some locals had attempted to repair leaks in the dam before it completely failed. [346], The Tōhoku Shinkansen line was worst hit, with JR East estimating that 1,100 sections of the line, varying from collapsed station roofs to bent power pylons, will need repairs. [75] The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. [76] The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). When: Friday 11th March 2011 Magnitude: 9.0 Where: The earthquake occurred 250 miles off the North East Coast of Japan's main island Honshu. The large number of views made the video one of the most popular examples of sonification on the web. Without ventilation, gas accumulated within the reactor containment structures and eventually exploded. [312] This brought the total number of problematic reactors to six. Never before seen footage of the catastrophic 2011 earthquake in Japan [338], A tsunami flooded Sendai Airport at 15:55 JST,[134] about 1 hour after the initial quake, causing severe damage. [259] Eight people were missing and four bodies were discovered by the morning. However, these scales "saturate" for earthquakes that are above a certain magnitude (magnitude 8 on the JMA scale); that is, in the case of very large earthquakes, the scales' values change little despite large differences in the earthquakes' energy. Of the total confirmed victims, 14,308 drowned, 667 were crushed to death or died from internal injuries, and 145 perished from burns. Follow Live Science @livescience and Facebook. The direct financial damage from the disaster is estimated to be about $199 billion dollars (about 16.9 trillion yen), according to the Japanese government. [55] By summer the Vice-minister for Economy, Trade and Industry, the head of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and the head of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy had all lost their jobs. Such discrepancies in the warning were attributed by the JMA to the system's inability to distinguish between two different earthquakes that happened at around same time, as well as to the reduced number of reporting seismometers due to power outages and connection fails. Because tsunami walls had been overtopped, the committee also suggested, besides building taller tsunami walls, also teaching citizens how to evacuate if a large-scale tsunami should strike. [329], As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. The country recently unveiled a newly installed, upgraded tsunami warning system. Japanese docks and ships, and countless household items, have arrived on U.S. and Canadian shores in the ensuing years. [384], According to Jake Adelstein, most Japanese media accepted and parroted the misinformation put out by the Japanese government and TEPCO about the unfolding Fukushima nuclear crisis. All damaged dams are functioning with no problems. [396], Researchers have also analysed the economic effects of this earthquake and have developed models of the nationwide propagation via interfirm supply networks of the shock that originated in the Tōhoku region.[397][398]. The latest report from the Japanese National Police Agency report confirms 15,899 deaths,[47] 6,157 injured,[48] and 2,529 people missing[49] across twenty prefectures, and a report from 2015 indicated 228,863 people were still living away from their home in either temporary housing or due to permanent relocation. While the Japan Trench was known for creating large quakes, it had not been expected to generate quakes above an 8.0 magnitude. The quake triggered a … ", Liquefaction driving away Chiba residents, Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot shows the risk of reclaimed land, "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis", "Magnitude 7.1 – NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN", "Fresh quake triggers tsunami warning in Japan", "Four dead as new tremor hits Japan disaster zone", "At least 6 killed in new Japan earthquake", "USGS 10-degree Map Centered at 35°N,140°E of earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 or over", "Aftershocks Associated With Impaired Health Caused by the Great East Japan Disaster Among Youth Across Japan: A National Cross-Sectional Survey Interact J Med Res 2013;2(2):e31", "Alert sounded a minute before the tremor struck", 経験則からのずれ ―はじめの数秒と強震動:τc, Pd,スペクトル,簡易震源域推定方法―, "Earthquake Early Warning and Tsunami Warning of JMA for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake", "Tsunami warnings issued for at least 20 countries after quake", "Distance between Dichato, Chile and Sendai, Japan is 17228km", "Chile Lifts Tsunami Alerts After Japan Quake Spawns Waves", "Chilean site: (Tsunami) waves penetrated 70–100 m in different parts of the country", "Tsunami Information (Estimated Tsunami arrival time and Height)", Helmholtz Research Centre for Geosciences, Japan's tsunami victims only had 15 minutes warning, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Japan tsunami: Toll could rise to more than 1,300, "News: Tsunami rolls through Pacific, Sendai Airport under water, Tokyo Narita closed, Pacific region airports endangered", "10-meter tsunami observed in area near Sendai in Miyagi Pref", "Japan 8.9-magnitude earthquake sparks massive tsunami", "Earthquake, tsunami wreak havoc in Japan", Tsunami hit more than 100 designated evacuation sites, "9,500 unaccounted for in Miyagi's Minamisanriku: local gov't", "東北地方太平洋沖地震を教訓とした地震・津波対策に関する専門調査会中間とりまとめ", U.S. rescue teams find devastation in northern city of Ofunato, "Whole towns gone-no cars or people seen", "Honderden doden in Japanse kuststad (Hundreds dead in Japanese coastal town)" (in Dutch), "Japan army says 300–400 bodies found in Rikuzentakata: Report", Miyagi coastal whaling port pulverized, little more than memory, 'Nothing can prepare you to witness this', Tsunami Slams Japan After Record Earthquake, Killing Hundreds, "Japan disaster: 30 powerful images of the earthquake and tsunami", Survivors on cut-off isle were ready for disaster, Tsunami Information NUMBER 64 (Tsunami Observation), "Tsunami Information NUMBER 64(Tsunami Observations)", "Executive Summary of Urgent Field Survey of Earthquake and Tsunami Disasters by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Researchers: 30-meter tsunami in Ofunato", "38-meter-high tsunami triggered by 11 March quake: survey", Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, "東北地方太平洋沖地震による津波被害を踏まえた津波警報の改善の方向性について(最終とりまとめ)", "Evacuate all coastal areas immediately, Hawaii Civil Defense says", "Text of PTWC Pacific-wide tsunami warning", "Tsunami from Japanese quake prompts evacuation of 11,000 residents on Russia's Pacific islands", "Tsunami Warning and Advisory No. [95] These are expected changes[40] for an earthquake of this magnitude. There was a problem. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunami waves. Fishing equipment was scattered on the high cliff above the bay. The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large … CNN, BBC, RT, Aljazeera and other channels are reporting live. The seismic moment of this earthquake accounts for about 93% of the estimated cumulative moment from 1926 to March 2011. Scientists from around the world descended on Japan following the earthquake and tsunami. [300], A report by the IAEA in 2012 found that the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant, the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, had remained largely undamaged. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage. [175][176] Russia evacuated 11,000 residents from coastal areas of the Kuril Islands. The plant's three reactors automatically shut down without damage and all safety systems functioned as designed. The devastation of the disaster was mainly due to the tsunami rather than the earthquake; more than 90% of the approximately 15,000 fatalities occurred due to drowning. East of Japan, the Pacific plate dives beneath the overriding Eurasian plate. The situation one year after Japan 2011 earthquake and Tsunami is overviewed. Researchers soon after the full extent of the disaster was known launched a project to gather all digital material relating to the disaster into an online searchable archive to form the basis of future research into the events during and after the disaster. Entire towns were destroyed in tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in Minamisanriku;[142] one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011. The Japan Meteorological Agency announced the English name as. Japan experienced over 1,000 aftershocks since the earthquake, with 80 registering over magnitude 6.0 Mw and several of which have been over magnitude 7.0 Mw. [341] Four trains on coastal lines were reported as being out of contact with operators; one, a four-car train on the Senseki Line, was found to have derailed, and its occupants were rescued shortly after 8 am the next morning. 3. [37][52] Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. [247] Three hundred hospitals with 20 beds or more in Tōhoku were damaged by the disaster, with 11 being completely destroyed. "The tsunami itself died out a long time ago, but the effects in Japan will be there for decades," Titov told Live Science. It's about 10 times less.". The tsunami waves also traveled across the Pacific, reaching Alaska, Hawaii and Chile. The total economic cost could reach up to $235 billion, the World Bank estimated, making it the costliest natural disaster in world history. [181] Surges of up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) hit Vancouver Island in Canada[179][failed verification] prompting some evacuations, and causing boats to be banned from the waters surrounding the island for 12 hours following the wave strike, leaving many island residents in the area without means of getting to work. [298] Over 200,000 people were evacuated. Scientific information about the Tōhoku earthquake, Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami, Japan in Crisis: A Series of Interviews with Scholars by Peter Shea at the University of Minnesota, Special: The Tōhoku-Oki Earthquake, Japan, Japan Gigantic Earthquake and Tsunami 2011, The East Japan Earthquake Archive (Testimonies of survivors, Photographs and Videos on Google Earth), Gross, Richard. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunamis. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was a 9.0-magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves. Researchers sailed offshore and dropped sensors along the fault line to measure the forces that caused the earthquake. About the 11th of March 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami that hit the japanese coast. Some of the most widely reported reason for these deaths include "Physical and mental fatigue caused by life in temporary shelter", "Physical and mental fatigue caused by evacuation", "Delayed treatment due to an inoperative hospital", "Physical and mental fatigue caused by stress from the earthquake and tsunami". Most of these deaths occurred during the first six months after the earthquake and the number dropped thereafter, but as time has passed, the number has continued to increase. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought they were on high enough ground to be safe. Stone monuments at the UNESCO World Heritage Site: Shrines and Temples of Nikkō were toppled. [66] Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 Mw or greater have occurred since the initial quake,[67] including one on 26 October 2013 (local time) of magnitude 7.1 Mw. [296] Higashidōri, also on the northeast coast, was already shut down for a periodic inspection. [104] At least four people were killed, and electricity was cut off across much of northern Japan including the loss of external power to Higashidōri Nuclear Power Plant and Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. [194][195] There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities. "For big earthquakes, the tsunami is going to be the big destructive factor," said Vasily Titov, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Center for Tsunami Research in Seattle, Washington. Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake", "Energy and resilience: The effects of endogenous interdependencies on trade network formation across space among major Japanese firms", Fault that Caused Japan's 2011 Earthquake is Thin and Slippery. ~ It was one of the biggest earthquakes in Japans history and top 5 largest earthquakes in the history of the world after seismological recording began.   It was the fifth most powerful earthquake ever recorded, and within 30 minutes, a 133-foot high tsunami pummeled Japan's northeastern shoreline. For the aftershock that occurred on 7 April, see, In the early days after the earthquake some other names were proposed and used. [143], Among the factors in the high death toll was the unexpectedly large water surge. Stuart Biggs and Aaron Sheldrick (11 March 2011). [393][394], The quake gave scientists the opportunity to collect a large amount of data to model the seismic events that took place in great detail. [282][283][284], A 220,000-barrel (35,000 m3)-per-day[285] oil refinery of Cosmo Oil Company was set on fire by the quake at Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, to the east of Tokyo. [277], The expected electricity crisis in 2011 summer was successfully prevented thanks to all the setsuden measures. A magnitude 9.0 earthquake rupturing the Earth's crust nearly 130 km off the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011, triggered a tsunami that reached the Japanese coast approximately 30 minutes later. [123][124][125] Chile's Pacific coast, one of the furthest from Japan at about 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) away, was struck by waves 2 metres (6.6 ft) high,[126][127][128] compared with an estimated wave height of 38.9 metres (128 ft) at Omoe peninsula, Miyako city, Japan. [273] Two substations, one in Shizuoka Prefecture and one in Nagano Prefecture, were able to convert between frequencies and transfer electricity from Kansai to Kanto and Tōhoku, but their capacity was limited to 1 GW. A few cases of suicide are also included. As of February 2017, there were still about 150,000 evacuees who lost their homes; 50,000 of them were still living in temporary housing, Japan's Reconstruction Agency said. The warning system was supposed to be updated about 15 minutes after the earthquake occurred, by which time the calculation for the moment magnitude scale would normally be completed. [231][232], Japanese funerals are normally elaborate Buddhist ceremonies that entail cremation. In Japan, residents are still recovering from the disaster. [299], The aftershock on 7 April caused the loss of external power to Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant and Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant but backup generators were functional. "Fukushima was created by the tsunami. [251], All of Japan's ports were briefly shut down after the earthquake, though the ones in Tokyo and southwards soon re-opened. In response the Japanese government mobilized the Self-Defence Forces (under Joint Task Force – Tōhoku, led by Lieutenant General Eiji Kimizuka), while many countries sent search and rescue teams to help search for survivors. [270] The reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Dai-ni plants were automatically taken offline when the first earthquake occurred and sustained major damage from the earthquake and subsequent tsunami. The earthquake was not a factor," Titov said. [39][74] The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate, building large amounts of elastic energy. [295], The Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant and Tōkai nuclear power stations, consisting of a total eleven reactors, were automatically shut down following the earthquake. [242] His body was found on 2 April 2011 along Ocean Beach in Fort Stevens State Park, Oregon, 530 km (330 mi) to the north. Fifteen ports were located in the disaster zone. The electrical power and backup generators were overwhelmed by the tsunami, and the plant lost its cooling capabilities. Part 2: From Religious Mobilization to "Spiritual Care. ~ This earthquake is also known as the Tōhoku Earthquake. [336] Most Tokyo area train lines resumed full service by the next day—12 March. In comparison to the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the East Japan earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range. That record goes to the 2004 Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunami in Sumatra, a magnitude-9.1, which killed more than 230,000 people. Earthquake engineers examined the damage, looking for ways to build buildings more resistant to quakes and tsunamis. [237], Noted individual fatalities within Japan included 104-year-old Takashi Shimokawara, holder of the world athletics records in the men's shot put, discus throw and javelin throw for the over-100 age category. [307][308][309] Officials from the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency reported that radiation levels inside the plant were up to 1,000 times normal levels,[310] and that radiation levels outside the plant were up to eight times normal levels. [37] Residents of Sendai had only eight to ten minutes of warning, and more than a hundred evacuation sites were washed away. In Sendai, a 145,000-barrel (23,100 m3)-per-day refinery owned by the largest refiner in Japan, JX Nippon Oil & Energy, was also set ablaze by the quake. [228] Among them were two English teachers from the United States affiliated with the Japan Exchange and Teaching Program;[229] a Canadian missionary in Shiogama;[230] and citizens of China, North and South Korea, Taiwan, Pakistan and the Philippines. In a subduction zone, one plate slides beneath another into the mantle, the hotter layer beneath the crust. [5][65] Following the main earthquake on 11 March, a 7.4 Mw aftershock was reported at 15:08 JST (6:06 UTC), succeeded by a 7.9 Mw at 15:15 JST (6:16 UTC) and a 7.7 Mw at 15:26 JST (6:26 UTC). The report also stated that the quake had caused several major landslides on the seabed in the affected area. [213], For the purpose of relief fund distribution, an "earthquake-related death" is defined as a case where the earthquake did not directly kill a person, but acted as a contributory factor that indirectly caused their death. [264], In the immediate aftermath of the calamity, at least 1.5 million households were reported to have lost access to water supplies. Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost three of its four external power lines and temporarily lost cooling function in its spent fuel pools for "20 to 80 minutes". 4. To prevent under-reporting of tsunami heights, early quantitative observation data that are smaller than the expected amplitude will be overridden and the public will instead be told that the situation is under observation. [117][118][119], There were also cases where large differences between estimated intensities by the Earthquake Early Warning system and the actual intensities occurred in the aftershocks and triggered earthquakes. [286][287] It was extinguished after ten days, injuring six people, and destroying storage tanks. [173][174], Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. [77][78] Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events. [5], The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, with hundreds of aftershocks reported. ~ 72 Km east of the Oshika Peninsula was the Hypocenter. The Japan Digital Archive is presented in English and Japanese and is hosted at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Watts, Jonathan, "Quake survivors search for hope and shelter". [144] According to a special committee on disaster prevention designated by the Japanese government, the tsunami protection policy had been intended to deal with only tsunamis that had been scientifically proved to occur repeatedly. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo. [252] All 15 ports reopened to limited ship traffic by 29 March 2011. Less than an hour after the earthquake, the first of many tsunami waves hit Japan's coastline. Aftershocks continued, many exceeding magnitude-7.0. It could take months or years to learn how damaging the release of dangerous isotopes has been to human health and food supplies, and to the surrounding countryside. [362][363][364] 12 of the aircraft were scrapped, while the remaining 6 were slated for repair at a cost of 80 billion yen ($1 billion), exceeding the original cost of the aircraft. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami has been assigned GLIDE identifier EQ-2011-000028-JPN by the Asian Disaster Reduction Center. "[53] Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water.[54]. An earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter Scale struck off Japan's north-east coast, about 250 miles (400km) from Tokyo at a depth of 20 miles. Major railways began running trains at 10–20 minute intervals, rather than the usual 3–5 minute intervals, operating some lines only at rush hour and completely shutting down others; notably, the Tōkaidō Main Line, Yokosuka Line, Sōbu Main Line and Chūō-Sōbu Line were all stopped for the day. On the day of the quake itself American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with a working phone or access to the Internet. The areas flooded in 2011 closely matched those of a tsunami that hit Sendai in 869. The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on 21 March 2011. This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu. In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake sped up the Whillans Ice Stream, jolting it by about 1.5 feet (0.5 meters). Hawaii, Philippines, Colombia, Bolivia, Australia, New Zealand, may be affected. [378], Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK, and Japan Satellite Television suspended their usual programming to provide ongoing coverage of the situation. With damage to so many power plants, it was feared it might be years before a long-term solution could be found. In the tsunami's aftermath, Japan's Meteorological Agency was criticized for issuing an initial tsunami warning that underestimated the size of the wave. [253] A total of 319 fishing ports, about 10% of Japan's fishing ports, were damaged in the disaster. The earthquake struck below the North Pacific Ocean, 130 kilometers (81 miles) east of Sendai, the largest city in the Tohoku region, a northern part of the island of Honshu. [130] The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately 561 square kilometres (217 sq mi) in Japan. The source area of this earthquake has a relatively high coupling coefficient surrounded by areas of relatively low coupling coefficients in the west, north, and south. 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