Mangroves are found in estuaries and coastal regions. : Indonesia - Where have all the forests gone? The name Borneo itself is a Western reference first used by the Dutch during their colonial rule of the island. During a "Dipterocarp year" in Kalimantan, the canopy bursts into color as countless emergent Dipterocarp trees — each of which may have 4 million flowers — bloom during a six-week period, a strategy that intermittently starves and swamps seed predators so that at least some seeds survive to germination. REUTERS/Supri SUPRI/CP Cora, an eight-month old orangutan who was purchased in Jakarta for 5 million rupiah ($580) and handed over to a government run animal shelter, is held by a … A recent study finds that massive deforestation across Borneo, in large part for oil palm plantations, has led to higher temperatures and less precipitation over the past 60 years. Effendi Buhing is determined to save the Kinipan forest with the help of our petition (© Save Our Borneo) Dec 2, 2020 Our partner organization Save our Borneo has delivered our petition to Effendi Buhing, the leader of the indigenous Dayak Tomun people of Kinipan, who will personally present it to Indonesian policymakers and … The hot spots are located in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest and Gran Chaco, Borneo, the Cerrado, Choco-Darien, the Congo Basin, East Africa, Eastern Australia, Greater Mekong, New Guinea, … Borneo: the third largest island in the world, one-third of which is home to 220,000 km 2 of diverse and beautiful rainforest. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. These range from commodity sourcing policies to recognizing Indigenous and local communities’ land rights. In prehistoric times it was connected to the Asian mainland due to geological and climate changes. In Kalimantan, oil palm has expanded even faster: from 13,140 hectares in 1984 to nearly one million hectares at the end of 2003. From Borneo to the Amazon, many of the world's key rainforests – and endemic species – are currently under threat. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests [2] was very limited. 2 passengers 14 nights. Borneo, especially Kalimantan, has also been heavily affect by peat fires set for land-clearing purposes. Montane forests are generally found at an elevation from 900 meters to 3300 meters in Borneo. With swampy coastal areas fringed with mangrove forests and a mountainous interior, much of the terrain was virtually impassable and unexplored. Deforestation started to accelerate with industrialization and between 1980 - 2000, more round wood was harvested from Borneo than from Africa and Amazon combined [2]. Logging is not necessarily bad for the forest! Up to 420 million acres of forest could be lost between 2010 and 2030 in these "deforestation fronts" if current trends continue. When it comes to rainforest deforestation, Borneo is right up there in notoriety with the Amazon. ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers (30 Nov 2020 18:59:37 +0000) The threat Palm oil plantations, pulp plantations, illegal logging and forest fires are the key drivers of deforestation in Borneo. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. During that period, nearly 40% of the park's lowland forest was cleared. Later forests in the southern part of Borneo, an area belonging to Indonesia and known as Kalimantan, became the primary source for tropical timber. Only half of its forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. A few links with interesting facts and views about tropical deforestation. These included emissions reductions targets, government procurement policies and corporate zero-deforestation commitments, and goals to set aside protected areas and restore degraded lands.- COVID-19 upended everything: Nowhere — not even tropical rainforests — escaped the effects of the global pandemic. Conservation was particularly hard in tropical countries.- 2019’s worst trends for forests mostly continued through the pandemic including widespread forest fires, rising commodity prices, increasing repression and violence against environmental defenders, and new laws and policies in Brazil and Indonesia that undermine forest conservation.- We don’t yet have numbers on the degree to which the pandemic affected deforestation, because it generally takes several months to process that data. During […] As in many tropical areas around the world, Borneo’s rainforests are being cut and degraded for timber, palm oil, pulp, rubber and minerals. Logging expanded significantly in the 1980s, Why oil palm is replacing tropical rainforests, California-sized area of forest lost in just 14 years, How the pandemic impacted rainforests in 2020: a year in review, Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective, Dolphins face growing pressure as development eats into Borneo’s interior, ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers, Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history, Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo, Video: The Sumatran rhino is sliding into extinction. We were lucky enough to make a trip to the rainforest on our recent 12-day visit to Borneo. According to Curran, more timber exported was from Borneo during that time than from Latin America and Africa combined. Conservationists replant legal palm oil plantation with forest in Borneo (09 Nov 2020 12:45:50 +0000) Human Population: 17.7 million, of which 17% or 2.2 million is indigenous Dayak Research has indicated that industrial plantation development on peatlands is one of the most important drivers of fire in Borneo. Industrial logging rose in the 1970s as Malaysia depleted its peninsular forests, and former Indonesian strongman Suharto distributed large tracts of forest to cement political relationships with army generals. We have a long-term project studying reforestation in some of the most damaged rainforests of Borneo. Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. "El Niño has become the great destroyer instead of the great provider," said Curran. A single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude, making the crop remarkably profitable when grown in large plantations. A further 16% of these intact forests will be converted. More on logging. [3]. Borneo now suffers from one of the highest deforestation rates in the world as forests are unsustainably logged for timber or cleared to make way for farms and plantations. Borneo's rainforests have been ravaged by fires, logging and palm oil plantations in recent decades. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. Deforestation. Much of the remaining forests will be logged and converted under the present forest-use designations. It appears that logging has reduced the local density and biomass of mature trees below some critical threshold that limits masting. Timber production appears to have shifted to Sarawak (North-western Borneo), where about half the forest cover is scheduled for logging. Deforestation in Borneo: Effects on Borneo's Native People. Other causes for deforestation are also linked to human development and include mining (for coal or for gold and other minerals), infrastructure development (roads, human settlements, etc.) However, in the past 50 years, more than 50% of the original rainforest has been lost. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a … Oil palm plantations are the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. “Only half of Borneo’s forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. With a current deforestation rate of 1.3 million hectares per year, only peat and montane forests would survive in the coming years,” the WWF warns. According to studies from 2014 based on satellite photos, an estimate of more than 30% of the original Bornean rainforests have been cleared within just four decades (1970-2010). Oil palm plantations are the main driver of deforestation in Borneo. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation … Langner and Siegert (2005) estimated that just under 30 million hectares of lowland Dipterocarp forest remained in Borneo in 2002. - A new animated short film from Mongabay, illustrated by artist Roger Peet, depicts the Sumatran rhino’s slide toward extinction.- No more than 80 Sumatran rhinos are believed to survive today, scattered across isolated and fragmented habitats in Indonesia.- Driven to the brink of extinction by habitat loss and hunting, Sumatran rhinos today face an even more fundamental threat: experts fear that too few calves are being born to offset even natural deaths in the remaining populations. The most important risk factor for orangutans is the loss of habitat. However, forest degradation and deforestation affects all areas around Mawas. It doesn’t have to (19 Oct 2020 04:33:12 +0000) Unable to support themselves with subsistence agriculture, many of these people went to work for logging companies. Langner and Siegert (2005) estimate that in 2002 about 70 percent (1.6 million ha) of Borneo's original montane forests (2.27 million hectares) remained. Large plantations owners are aided by subsidies that include crude processing facilities and roads. Conservation areas have had mixed success in Borneo. Up to 90 percent of deforestation in Borneo is carried out illegally. - The ecosystems of East Kalimantan province in Indonesian Borneo face increasing pressure due to mining, logging, industrial agriculture, infrastructure projects, and a plan to establish a new administrative capital city.- One of the species imperiled by this rapid transformation is the Irrawaddy dolphin.- Estuarine populations of the species already face severely negative impacts from increasing shipping traffic and coastal development in Balikpapan Bay.- A critically endangered population of freshwater Irrawaddy dolphins living in the middle reaches of the Mahakam River are also under increasing pressure due to climate change, oil palm cultivation, coal mining and transport. 32 No 7, Nov. 2003, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2003, The World Bank: Indonesia: Environment and Natural Resource Management in a Time of Transition, February 2001, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: https://www.wcmc.org accessed February 2, 2007, WWF: Borneo's Lost World: Newly Discovered Species on Borneo; written by Pio D. and D'Cruz R. (ed) for WWF, April 2005. Lowland Dipterocarp forests are the most biodiverse and most threatened forests in Borneo. In 2001, the World Wildlife Foundation forecast that "If the current trend of habitat destruction continues, there will be no remaining lowland forests in Borneo by 2010." Countries: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, was once covered with dense rainforests. Secondary threats include large-scale industrial projects (roads and hydroelectric projects), hunting, and the climate of corruption which permeates virtually all levels of government in Kalimantan. These giant trees, often exceeding 45 meters in height, are the most valuable source of timber in Borneo and have been heavily logged since the 1970s. What is the highest deforestation rate during the period 1973-2010 [2], What is the highest proportion of intact forest in Borneo (or primary forest) in 2010 [2]. Its forests were leveled at a rate unparalleled in human history. Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. Curran found that seed production fell from 175 pounds per acre in 1991 to 16.5 pounds per acre in 1998, even though it was a one of the strongest El Niño years on record. Today this area is so diminished the World Bank estimates that almost no heath forests will remain in Borneo by 2010. Over time, large parts of this rainforest have been destroyed to make room for farming. Borneo Futures has undertaken an island-wide analysis of forest clearance and logging for the entire island of Borneo since the 1970s. Surveys have found more than 700 species of trees in a 10 hectare plot — a number equal to the total number of trees in Canada and the United States combined. In 2004, 30% of these of these were located in Sabah, which has ideal growing conditions for the plant, and 13% were in Sarawak. Land use change has broken the once tightly linked cycle of the ecosystem. Borneo has lost forest cover twice as fast as the rest of the world’s humid tropical forests. This indicates that respondents in the regions with lowest current forest cover and annual forest loss (W. Kalimantan and Sabah), and with a longer history of deforestation compared to other parts of Borneo , , tended to see small-scale clearing as beneficial, and were least opposed to large-scale deforestation. Geographically the island is divided by central highlands that run diagonally from Sabah state (Malaysia) in northeastern Borneo to southwestern Borneo, roughly forming the border between West and Central Kalimantan (Indonesia). August 13, 2019. When fires are set for land-clearing purposes, they can quickly spread out-of-control into adjacent areas, including healthy forests. Though it was first planted in Indonesia in 1848, it wasn't until the mid-1990s that oil palm cultivation really started to accelerate. Borneo is burning. ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape (19 Aug 2020 06:01:19 +0000) The World Bank Group: Transmigration in Indonesia. Save the Orangutan therefore supports patrolling of the protected rainforest areas. These include nine forest areas in Latin America, eight in Africa, and seven in Asia and Oceania.- Using five satellite-based datasets, the report finds 43 million hectares (166,000 square miles) of deforestation during the period. In Kalimantan, some 80% of lowlands went to timber concessions, including most of its mangrove forests. - The development of oil palm plantations across Indonesia, including those certified as sustainable, has had mixed outcomes for the social and ecological well-being of nearby communities, a new study shows.- In Sumatra, where oil palm has been cultivated for longer than on other islands and where rural residents have largely switched to a market-based economy, there’s a marginal net positive impact from the presence of plantations.- In Indonesian Borneo, however, where villagers tend to rely on subsistence-based livelihoods, socioecological conditions have worsened in the wake of plantation certification.- The study authors say their findings flag the risk of “unintended indirect impacts of pushing large-scale industrial oil palm into frontier forest areas where local communities still rely heavily on environmental services.”. Between 2000 and 2017, 6.04 million hectares of old-growth forest were lost in Borneo, a decline of … It is said that they are around 130 million years old, the oldest on the planet. Activists in Malaysia call on road planners to learn the lessons of history (13 Nov 2020 05:43:27 +0000) For the first time, clear, transparent and precise figure about deforestation rates and extent in Borneo are made available. Every second, a patch of rainforest the size of a soccer field disappears to make place for monoculture plantations. Sabah has the highest proportion of forest under some form of protection and the government is starting to work to encourage a knowledge-based services economy over an extractive one. The causes of deforestation in Borneo are not complex; but the solutions are. Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of the ubiquitous oil, which is found in nearly every household item from bread to chocolate to shampoo. ... For the native people and animals of the Borneo forest their diet consists of a wide range of food, including wild figs, leaves, seeds, bird eggs, flowers and honey as well as native fruit and vegetables. Rather than slowing down, deforestation is accelerating and more than 8 million hectares were lost between 2000 and 2010, accounting for 12 percent of its 2000 cover. In 2010, 65,000 km2 (twice the size of Belgium) was planted with oil palm and 10,537 km2 under industrial tree plantations (mostly rubber trees or acacias for the pulp and paper industry). Deforestation in Borneo: the extent of the problem. Sources: Forest … 42% of intact forests fall under “production forests” and will be logged as the area of forest that falls under exploitation is greater than protected forests. California-sized area of forest lost in just 14 years (13 Jan 2021 00:14:01 +0000) With over 500 tons of carbon per hectare — one of the highest levels of biomass on the planet — these ecosystems can contribute up to 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in bad fire years, making Indonesia the third largest greenhouse gas polluter, far larger than its emissions from fossil fuels. Orang utans are being made extinct and their once beautiful natural habitat is being destroyed by greed and the relentless expansion of the palm oil industry. The high complexity of the Bornean tropical rain forest … Draining and/or burning these areas releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... Madagascar and Borneo. ... Madagascar and Borneo. 70% of Gunung Palung National Park's lowland buffer zone was deforested in just four years, 1998-2002. MacKinnon et al. Cloud forests are a type of montane forests. Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. In Malaysia, today the world's largest producer of palm oil, oil palm plantations grew from 60,000 hectares in 1960 to more than 3 million hectares in 2001. Written 2000, published June 2002 Protected Animals Smuggling Reaches $547.5m Annually; Jakarta Post: 28/3/2003, Langner A. and Siegert F.: Assessment of Rainforest Ecosystems in Borneo using MODIS satellite imagery. Patrolling against … Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of … Between 2000 and 2017, 6.04 million hectares of old-growth forest were lost in Borneo, a decline of 14%. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. During the same period, a total of 271,820 km of logging roads were created in Borneo: this is 21 times the earth circumference (or ¾ distance Earth-Moon). The prevalence of Dipterocarps gives Borneo's forests an unusual dynamic that is tightly linked with the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (also known as ENSO or "El Niño"). The increase in these activities is being matched by a growth in illegal wildlife trade, as cleared forests provide easy access to more remote areas. Area: The current area of Borneo is 743,330 km2. As such, vast swathes of land are being converted for oil palm plantations. Tropical peatlands, which form over hundreds of years, are giant stores of carbon. Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? Related articles That equates to more than 18,000 square miles of rainforest. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. The rainforest of Borneo is rich in many valuable natural resources. This online atlas is designed to help organizations like the ISPO and RSPO improve transparency and accountability of oil palm and pulpwood plantations, as well as help nations and companies keep better track of their zero net deforestation commitments. How the pandemic impacted rainforests in 2020: a year in review (28 Dec 2020 19:25:42 +0000) The rainforest of Borneo is rich in many valuable natural resources. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. This recognition needs to be followed by the political will to make tough decisions, including challenging business-as-usual interests that work to destroy forests, accounting for the true costs of environmental degradation, and creating financial incentives for local people to shift behavior. - To its proponents, the 2,000-kilometer (1,200-mile) Pan Borneo Highway holds the promise of economic development for the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo.- But activists in Sabah say that poor planning and an emphasis on extracting resources mean that the highway could harm communities and ecosystems in Sabah’s forests and along its coastlines.- A new film captures the perspectives of people living closest to the highway’s proposed path and reveals the struggles that some have faced as the road closed in on their homes.- Meanwhile, an environmental historian argues that Pan Borneo Highway planners are repeating the same mistakes British colonists made in focusing on extraction, rather than trying to find ways to benefit Sabah’s communities. 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